Comparative Guts

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Frontal illustration of the small and large intestines and the bladder (f. 69v)

Tansūqnāmah-i Īlkhān dar funūn-i ʿulūm-i Khatāʾī  (Ilkhan’s Treasure Book on the Branches of the Chinese Sciences). Istanbul MS Aya Sofya 3596. Tabriz, 1313.
This illustration occurs right before the beginning of the sixth section of the book (f. 70r) describing the connection of the veins and the ducts of the kidneys with the intestines and the bladder.

Cross-reference: The Screen gate

The Tansūqnāmah is a Persian adaptation of a Chinese medical work —or works— commisioned by the Mongol vizier, physician and man of letters Rashīd al-Dīn (d. 1318). This treatise, which has survived in a unicum manuscript, contains anatomical illustrations copied from Chinese sources that do not have any parallel in the anatomical tradition developed in the Islamic world.